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2018年成人學位英語考試閱讀理解強化練習及答案二
時間:2016-12-20     來源:168網校  (全面資訊快報  頂級試聽體驗)    訪問點擊量:1552

Human needs seem endless. When a hungry man gets a meal, he begins to think  about an overcoat; when a manager gets a new sports car, a big house and  pleasure boats dance into view.

The many needs of mankind might be regarded as making up several levels.  When there is money enough to satisfy one level of needs, another level  appears.

The first and most basic level of needs involves food. Once this level is  satisfied, the second level of needs, clothing and some sort of shelter,  appears. By the end of World War II, these needs were satisfied for a great  majority of Americans. Then a third level appeared. It included such items as  automobiles and new houses.

By 1957 or 1958 this third level of needs was fairly well satisfied. Then,  in the late 1950s, a fourth level of needs appeared: the "life enriching" level.  While the other levels involve physical satisfaction, that is, the feeding,  comfort, safety, and transportation, this level stresses mental needs for  recognition, achievement, and happiness. It includes a variety of goods and  services, many of which could be called "luxury" items. Among them are vacation  trips, the best medical and dental care, and recreation. Also included here are  fancy goods and the latest styles in clothing.

On the fourth level, a lot of money is spent on services, while on the  first three levels more is spent on goods. Will consumers raise their sights to  a fifth level of needs as their income increases, or will they continue to  demand luxuries and personal services on the fourth level?

A fifth level would probably involve needs that can be achieved best by  community action. Consumers may be spending more on taxes to pay for government  action against disease, ignorance, crim, and prejudice. After filling our  stomachs, our clothes closets, our garages, our teeth, and our minds, we now may  seek to ensure the health, safety, and leisure to enjoy more fully the good  things on the first four levels.

11. According to the passage, man will begin to think about such needs as  housing and clothing only when _____.

A. he has saved up enough money

B. he has grown dissatisfied with his simple shelter

C. he has satisfied his hunger

D. he has learned to build houses

[答案]C

【精析】本題答案對應于第一、三段。文章的第一段提到一個人有了吃的就會想到再要件衣服,第三段又說最基本的需求是食物,這個層次的需求得到滿足后人就會考慮服裝和住的地方。綜合判斷,所以選C,即他不再饑餓后就會產生對住處和衣服的需求。

12. It can be inferred from the passage that by the end of World War Ⅱ, most Americans _____.

A. were very rich

B. lived in poverty

C. had the good things on the first three levels

D. did not own automobiles

[答案]D

【精析】文章第三段中說第二次世界大戰結束時,對于大多數美國人來說,食品、服裝以及住所的需求都滿足了,然后第三個層次的需求,包括汽車和新房子便出現了。這說明第二次世界大戰結束時大多數美國人還沒有汽車。A“很富有”,意思不明。B“生活在貧困中”,不符合文意。C“滿足了前三個層次的需求”,也不正確,因為這時第三個層次的需求才剛剛出現。

13. Which of the following is NOT related to "physical satisfaction"?

A. A successful career.

B. A comfortable home.

C. A good meal.

D. A family car.

[答案]A

【精析】本題答案對應于文章的第四段,第四段第三行說physical  satisfaction包括食物、生活舒適、有安全感、有交通工具,在B、C、D中都有體現。故選A.

14. What is the main concern of man on the fourth level?

A. The more goods the better.

B. The more mental satisfaction the better.

C. The more “luxury” items the better.

D. The more earnings the better.

[答案]B

【精析】本題答案對應文章第四段,其中第四行this level,也就是第四個層次的需求強調的是精神需求,所以選B.

15. The author tends to think that the fifth level _____.

A. would be little better than the fourth level

B. may be a lot more desirable than the first four

C. can be the last and most satisfying level

D. will become attainable before the government takes actions

[答案]B

【精析】本題考查考生對作者意思的整體把握。先看A“比第四個層次要好一些”,意思含糊。C“是最終的、最令人滿意的需求層次”,太絕對。D“在政府采取行動之前就能實現”,不合文意。文章說第五個層次的需求要通過集體行動實現,即人們付錢給政府,讓其對抗疾病、愚昧、犯罪與不公。可見這要在政府采取行動后實現。而B的意思是“比前四個層次的需求更值得擁有”,這是正確的。

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